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《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

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揭秘:动物肉色可告诉你什么?

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kk 发表于 2016-8-15 16:33:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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不知你有没有这样的经历:从冰箱里拿出几天前买的肉,发现肉的颜色变深了。肉是坏了还是没有?

肉色是肉品在购买、保存、烹饪时的最要指标。人们都喜欢买诱人的明亮的颜色的肉品。根据美国农业部食品安全检验局报道,当肉品在销售、家庭冷藏或冷冻时,肉品颜色发生变化是正常的。

肉色受肌红蛋白影响,其主要决定了肉的红色。该蛋白并不在血液中循环,而是固定在组织内,颜色略带紫色。

当肌红蛋白与氧结合时,就会变成氧合肌红蛋白,变成一种明亮的红色。肉色中其它颜色来源于血红蛋白,其主要存在于循环备注中,但是动物屠宰后在组织内可发现少些血红蛋白。

肉色还受动物年龄、种类、性别和运动。对于年龄来讲,越大的动物肌肉内肌红蛋白水平越高,肉的颜色也就越深。一块肉出现不同颜色很正常,因为运动较多的肌肉颜色会较深些。

肉色发生变化说明肉变坏了吗?

由于肉的腐败也存在颜色的变化,变淡或变深。除了颜色的变化,肉腐败时还会发出异味,触感变粘。如果肉品具有这些特性,将不能食用。但是,肉品在冰箱冷藏或冷冻过程中,颜色的变化并不意味着肉品的腐败。

肉品销售时,为什么有的肉颜色很亮,而有的颜色很暗?

肉品表面最佳颜色的时间都是很短暂的。你会看到:
1448956920960.jpeg

牛肉-樱桃红
羊肉-黑樱桃红
猪肉-灰粉红色
小牛肉-浅桃红

肉品销售保存时,使用一种氧气不可透过的食品保鲜膜,可以帮助肉品保持明亮的红色。但是,光照及氧气与肉品中肌红蛋白、氧合肌合蛋白接触后生成高铁肌红蛋白,这种蛋白将会使肉品变成棕红色。

对于切碎后的牛肉,表面的颜色为明亮的红色,里面的可能为灰棕色,因为氧气无法到达碎肉里部。这种颜色差异并不是说明肉品变坏了,只能反应肉品与氧气接触的程度。

附原文:

What Does the Colour of Meat Tell You?

ANALYSIS – You just pulled a package of pork out of the refrigerator that you bought four days ago, and the colour looks darker that when you first bought it. Has it gone bad or is that normal?

Colour is important when meat is purchased, stored, and cooked. Often an attractive, bright colour is a consideration for the purchase. When safely stored in a retail or home refrigerator or freezer, it's normal for the colour of meat and poultry to change, according to the USDA Food Safety Inspection Service(FSIS)。

Meat colour is influenced by myoglobin, a protein, that is responsible for the majority of meat's red colour. Myoglobin doesn't circulate in the blood but is fixed in the tissue cells and is purplish in colour.

When it is mixed with oxygen, it becomes oxymyoglobin and produces a bright red colour. The remaining colour comes from the hemoglobin which occurs mainly in the circulating blood, but a small amount can be found in the tissues after slaughter.

Colour is also influenced by the age of the animal, the species, sex, diet, and even the exercise it gets. As animals age, the myoglobin level increases, so the meat from older animals will appear be darker in colour. It's normal to see variations in colour throughout a cut of meat because exercised muscles are always darker in colour.

Does a change in colour indicate spoilage?

With spoilage there can be a change in colour—often a fading or darkening. In addition to the colour change, the meat will have an off odor, be sticky or tacky to the touch, or it may be slimy. If meat has developed these characteristics, it should not be used. However, a change in colour while in the refrigerator or freezer alone does not mean the product is spoiled.

Why is some meat bright red and other meat very dark in colour when displayed at the grocery store?

Optimum surface colour of fresh meat is usually short-lived. Expect to see:

·Beef - cherry-red for beef
·Lamb - dark cherry-red
·Pork - grayish-pink
·Veal - pale pink

The use of a plastic wrap that allows oxygen to pass through it helps ensure that the cut meats will retain this bright red colour. However, exposure to store lighting as well as the continued contact of myoglobin and oxymyoglobin with oxygen leads to the formation of metmyoglobin, a pigment that turns meat brownish-red.

With ground beef, it can have a bright red colour on the surface, but the interior of the meat may be grayish-brown due to the lack of oxygen penetrating below the surface. This is not a sign of spoiled beef, rather it's reflecting oxygen exposure.

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