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《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

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此专区供《现代养猪生产技术——告诉你猪场盈利的秘诀》读者互动详细

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图文详解养猪指导:从育种到分娩后育肥

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kk 发表于 2016-8-23 16:17:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
养猪生产者面临着消费者对其生产流程的全程监控,如最近芝加哥论坛报就发表了一系列关于当地公众对伊利诺伊州养猪业监控的文章。但是,一般的公众目前还不会对养猪生产每一步骤或对每一阶段养猪场的操作进行关注。综观现代生猪养殖基础模型,表明生产者需面临多个生产转换点,他们所做的选择将影响畜群的健康、生产力和生物安全。
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育种

猪农可选择天然繁殖模式,公母猪自行配种,或人工授精。新出现的一次固定时间授精取代传统的3天内多次授精的标准操作,将会成为必然。

妊娠(112-115天)

妊娠母猪可以单独饲养或群养。对于群养,栏舍的设计应满足所使用饲喂系统的要求。但是,一般来讲,群养母猪栏舍可以分为全开放式和部分限位式。

分娩(3-5周)

当母猪接近分娩时,大多数猪农都会选择将母猪转移至单一分娩栏,这种栏舍限制了母猪活动空间,避免了母猪对仔猪的挤压损失。

部分猪农可能会使用教槽料,或在母乳的基础上补充一些颗粒固体饲料。要想实现教槽料的价值,仔猪必须有足够的时间来摄入约500g教槽料。当仔猪约25日龄断奶时,教槽料的采食量将接近500g,这样就成功度过了仔猪对大豆的过敏性反应。

一般会在3-5周龄时,对仔猪进行断奶。断奶时间越早,可以缩短母猪进入下一次生产周期的时间。但断奶时间较晚,则伴随着更高的生长速度和采食量。

保育/生长(6-9周)

部分猪场会为不同生长阶段的猪设计不同的独立栏舍。其他的也会将一幢栏舍分成3个部分分别饲喂断奶、生长、育肥3个阶段的猪群,来充分利用栏舍空间。还有一些猪场也会选择在同一栏舍饲喂所有阶段的生长猪。将猪按年龄分群饲喂,可带来更好的生物安全和栏舍利用率。

育肥(16-18周)

断奶阶段得到合理饲喂管理的猪,在育肥期可更好地实现其生长潜能。育肥结束时,猪体重可达250磅,甚至更高。

从猪肉的屠宰加工角度出发,提高胴体重可提高经济收益。因为,胴体越大,加工成本越低。但是,体重太大,后期将沉积大量脂肪,降低饲料效率。
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附原文:
Infographic: Pig farming guide from start to finish

Pork producers face public scrutiny of their operations, such as a recent series of articles on?Illinois? pig production in the Chicago Tribune  Yet, the general public often remains unaware of the steps involved in pig farming or the choices farmers face at each stage of that process. An overview of a basic pig production model reveals numerous points where farmers must make choices that influence the health, fecundity and biosecurity of the herd.

Breeding

Swine farmers may choose to use natural reproduction, the classic boar meets gilt story, or artificial insemination with their herd. The new trend of single fixed-time insemination  is becoming a more popular alternative to the standard practice of multiple inseminations over a three-day period.

Gestation (112-115 days)

The pregnant females, called “in-pig,” may then be housed individually or in groups. In group sow housing, the layout will be based in part upon the feeding system utilized. However, in general, group sow housing  can be divided into either fully open or partial stall access.

Farrowing (3-5 weeks)

As sows near the time to give birth, most farms move the females to individual enclosures that are equipped with an area, called a creep, where piglets can avoid being crushed by the mother or other pigs.

Some farmers may then use creep feeding, or supplementation of the sow's milk with pelleted feed. For piglets to fully benefit from creep feeding , they must have sufficient time to consume about 500 grams of feed before weaning. When pigs are weaned at approximately 25 days of age, creep feed intake approaches the limit of 500 grams of pigs, bypassing the danger of delayed soybean hypersensitivity reaction  .

Piglets are usually weaned between three and five weeks of age. Weaning piglets young can reduce the time to the next litter. However, a higher growth rate and feed intake  often result from increasing weaning age and by providing liquid diets and creep feeding.

Nursery/growing (6-9 weeks)

Some farms incorporate separate buildings for different pig life stages. Others divide a single building into three stages to efficiently use the space as the pigs grows from weaner to grower to finisher. Some hog barns use a single area from weaning to finishing. Dividing the piglets by age group allows greater biosecurity and efficient use of space.

Finishing (16-18 weeks)

Pigs that are fed and managed properly during the weaning transition can better reach their full potential at finishing. At finishing, a pig may weigh 250 pounds or more.

From the pig processor's point of view, increasing?carcass weight can have financial benefits  because, depending on equipment, the cost of processing a heavier carcass may be no higher but would provide a greater yield of saleable meat. However, with greater maturity, there is a tendency for fat deposition to increase and feed conversion efficiency to get worse.

养猪技术.jpg

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