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《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

《现代养猪生产技术》读者互动专区

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此专区供《现代养猪生产技术——告诉你猪场盈利的秘诀》读者互动详细

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猪肉大理石纹会影响消费者满意度吗?

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kk 发表于 2016-8-26 15:23:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
肉质可受多种因素影响,如品种、性别、日粮、屠宰前管理及屠宰后胴体的加工等。因此,以高肌内脂肪含量为特征的杜洛克猪肉,更受新鲜消费及制作高质量火腿生产者的青睐。
1 - 副本.jpg

肉大理石纹与风味、肉汁、嫩度相关,与肌肉脂肪水平直接相关。高水平的大理石纹肉被认为拥有更好的感官质量。但是,消费者的爱好却不同,因为他们明显更喜欢消费无脂、瘦肉型产品,而大理石纹肉在消费者眼里感观质量并不是那么好。

假设屠宰厂或零售商所销售肉品的视觉感观质量与其食用满意度两者并不存正相关。因此,为了评估肌内脂肪水平对肉嫩度、肉汁、消费者满意度的影响,一个试验品尝比较了肌内脂肪水平不同的4块猪里脊肉:G1:0.96%,G2:2.11%,G3:3.72%、G4:5.78%。品尝者将会对这些肉进行评分,分为1至9级,1级代表不喜欢、很硬、很干,9级代表很喜欢、很嫩、多汁(图1)。
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图1:不同肌内脂肪水平的猪里脊肉的感观评估

研究采用了200位消费品尝者,年龄范围为18-73岁,男女各一半。试验者首先在品尝室内品尝不同烤肉,然后离开品尝室。要求他们对4种不同肌内脂肪水平的猪里脊肉作视觉等级划分。
10.png
图1:消费者对不同肌内脂肪水平猪里脊肉的满意度、嫩度、多汁得分情况(1=不喜欢、很硬、很干;9=很喜欢、很嫩、多汁)。显著性差异p < 0.05。

上图结果说明,从消费者对猪肉外观偏好来看,可将西班牙的猪肉消费者划分为两类:瘦肉类、大理石纹类(这类消费者知道大理石纹对肉的适口性有影响,且对健康无负面作用)。但是,试验中两类消费者都给高肌内脂肪水平猪肉给予了高分。因此,结果表明高肌内脂肪水平的猪肉消费者满意度最高,嫩度、多汁得分也是最高。因此,提高猪肉肌内脂肪水平可作为一种商业策略来生产更多的可口的肉品,但是我们也要记住部分消费者只喜欢瘦肉。消费者的购买决定是很复杂的,购买时部分消费者更喜欢没有脂肪的肉,但食用时又更喜欢高脂肪水平的肉。建议提高肉品满意度最小肌内脂肪水平应为2.2%-3.4%。

附原文:

Does marbling degree in pork influence consumer acceptability?

Meat quality can be?influenced by factors such as breed, sex , diet and?ante-mortem management of the animals and?post-mortem?processing of the carcasses. Thus, meat from Duroc pigs, characterized by a high intramuscular fat content, is much appreciated for both fresh consumption and its use in the production of high quality cured hams.

Meat marbling is related to its flavour, juiciness and tenderness, and directly related to the intramuscular fat content. Meat with high levels of marbling is expected to have better sensory quality. However, consumers preferences differ, since there is now a clear tendency to consume more and more fat-free products and, as a result, the sensory quality of these products by consumers may be lower.

It follows that there is not a correspondence between?visual sensory quality of the meat at the butchers or retailers?and meat acceptability when it is consumed. Thus, in order to assess the effect of the intramuscular fat content on meat tenderness, juiciness and acceptability by consumers, a study was conducted where 4 loin pieces with different mean contents of intramuscular fat were tasted: G1: 0.96%, G2: 2.11%, G3: 3.72% and G4: 5.78%. A meat grading system ranging from 1 to 9  was used by consumers, where 1 was?'I do not like it', 'It is very firm' or 'It is very dry', and 9?'I like it a lot','It is very?tender' or 'It is very juicy' (Photo 1)。

Photo 1. Loin samples for visual assessment depending on their?intramuscular fat content.

The study included 200 consumers between 18 and 73 years old, with about 50% men and 50% women. They first tasted the meat grilled and later, already outside the box?where the meat was tasted, they were asked to do a visual grading of 4 samples of each intramuscular fat group, and to rank each slice according to their visual preference.

Figure 1. Acceptability, tenderness and juiciness scores (from 1 = “I do not like, very firm , very dry” to 9 = “I really like it, very tender, very juicy”) depending on the intramuscular fat content group it belongs to (G1: 0.96%, G2: 2.11%, G3: 3.72% and G4: 5.78%)。 Bars for the same attribute with different superscripts indicate significant differences between groups (p>0.05)。

The graph shows that, from the point of view of visual preference, Spanish consumers can be classified into two distinct groups: those who prefer very lean meat and those who like to see the marbling (since they probably know it has an impact on palatability and does not have negative health effects)。 However, when tasting the meat, both consumer groups gave higher scores to all the acceptability attributes of cooked meat containing a higher level of intramuscular fat. Therefore, the results show that the meat with the highest intramuscular fat content (marbling) had higher overall acceptability scores, as well as tenderness and juiciness scores. Thus, increasing intramuscular fat in meat can be a business strategy to obtain a more tasty meat, but we must bear in mind that some consumers prefer meat with no visual traces of intramuscular fat. Therefore, results show that purchasing decisions are complex because, even though some consumers prefer meat with no fat in sight, they prefer the meat with the highest marbling degree when they taste it. A minimum of intramuscular fat between 2.2% and 3.4% to enhance the meat acceptability was recommended?

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